According to the Dec. 5, 2001, Paris Review, "In 1963, a sixteen-year-old San Diego high school student named Bruce McAllister sent a four-question mimeographed survey to 150 well-known authors of literary, commercial, and science fiction. Did they consciously plant symbols in their work? he asked. Who noticed symbols appearing from their subconscious, and who saw them arrive in their text, unbidden, created in the minds of their readers? When this happened, did the authors mind?"
Read our hero Jack's response by clicking here: Paris Review: The Symbolism Survey. You'll see Jack's actual handwritten responses on the mimeographed survey (yes, some of us remember mimeographs).
The other authors' responses are fascinating. Happy reading!